Linkages between Greenness, Socio-Economic Conditions, Air pollution, and Public Health in China: Does Income Inequality Matters?
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health,
The world has witnessed climatic change, innovation, and a transition toward a greener economy and environment in the last few decades. However, the rising economic development has caused human health issues due to rising pollution and poor air quality. The current study analyzes the role of air quality (greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen emissions), forests, health expenditure, and socioeconomic conditions for the rising health issues in the case of China. This study uses quarterly data from 1994Q1 to 2021Q4 and employs various time-series estimating approaches. The Johansen-Fisher cointegration validates that all the variables are cointegrated. Utilizing the three long-run estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least square, dynamic ordinary least square, and canonical cointegrating regression, the results asserted that air quality severely affects public health, greenhouse gas emissions, and rising pollution (carbon and nitrogen) levels. Besides, income inequality and socioeconomic condition substantially contributed to health-related issues. However, the forests and health expenditure significantly reduce the health consequences and risks. As a developing and fossil energy-dependent economy, this study provides relevant policy implications for maintaining stable growth and health-related policies in China.
Forests, Nitrogen emissions, Carbon emissions, Public health, China, Health expenditures, Income inequality