Non-linear relationship between tourism, economic growth, urbanization, and environmental degradation: evidence from smooth transition models
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
The study aims to analyze two objectives: first is to explore the non-linear relationship between tourism development, economic growth, urbanization, and environmental degradation, and also to analyze the threshold level of the contribution of tourism development on environmental degradation in top tourist arrival destinations. We applied the newly proposed econometric method panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) framework with two regimes on yearly panel data from 1995 to 2017. Findings suggest that the relationship between tourism development and environmental degradation is non-linear and regime dependent. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the relationship above the threshold level is negative and significant, while below the threshold, tourism development is positive and significant effect on environmental degradation. Tourism development and environmental degradation also exhibit the inverted U-shape relationship meaning that at a particular point, increase in tourism development increases in environmental degradation but after a particular point, increase in tourism development decreases the environmental degradation. The economic growth and urbanization also portray a non-linear and regime-dependent relationship with environmental degradation. The study assists policies and empirical information.
tourism development, environmental degradation, Population, GDP, PSTR Model