Threshold non-linear relationship between globalization, renewable energy consumption, and environmental degradation: evidence from smooth transition models
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
The study intends to explore the following objectives: initially, to examine the non-linear connection between globalization, renewable energy consumption, and environmental degradation. Secondly, to evaluate the role of globalization in increasing or decreasing the carbon emission at the threshold level for different income countries. Panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) is an econometric technique that has been applied for estimation utilizing the data from 1995 to 2017. Results signify that the globalization and environmental degradation have non-linear connection and depends on different regimes. Moreover, on the basis of estimation, it is considered that the effect beyond the threshold level can be damaging, whereas less than the threshold level globalization is positively related to carbon emission. Hence, the inverted U-shaped relation denotes that at a specific level, the rise in globalization reduces carbon emission, but later, a specific level globalization accumulates carbon emission. Carbon emission has non-linear and regime-dependent relation to economic development and renewable energy consumption. The study provides recommendations that can assist policymakers.
globalization, renewable energy consumption, Trade openness, Carbon dioxide emission, GDP, PSTR model